Soil and Groundwater Investigations

When historical review of data or a site inspection suggests that soil or groundwater contamination exists, soil and water sampling may be necessary to evaluate the extent of the contamination. Our geologists have extensive experience in evaluating soil and groundwater contamination as part of a site characterization study. These groundwater investigations may be part of a Phase II environmental assessment, a UST investigation, or a risk assessment, each of which requires collection of site-specific data to evaluate the presence, source, and extent of soil and/or groundwater contamination. Our services include:

Sampling Programs:

We design and implement sampling programs to evaluate soil, surface water, and groundwater contamination. Sampling programs are sometimes limited to collecting shallow soil samples using a hand auger, but in other cases involve a full drilling program with installation of monitoring wells for groundwater sampling. WILLIAM L. GOING & ASSOCIATES, INC. uses innovative Geoprobe soil and groundwater sampling techniques when appropriate to screen sites for contamination. These screening techniques can reduce the time and expense required for large-scale site-wide sampling programs.

Geophysical Investigations:

WILLIAM L. GOING & ASSOCIATES, INC. conducts geophysical investigations on a wide variety of commercial and industrial property, as well as hazardous waste sites to obtain subsurface information. For instance, to locate underground infrastructure and other environmental targets, on the ground surface we conduct geophysical surveys such as electromagnetic, magnetic, ground-penetrating radar, and seismic refraction surveys. Geophysical tools are also used in bedrock wells to measure and log gamma radiation, conductivity, resistivity, density, and other geophysical properties from surface to total depth. To observe bedrock features, a color televiewer camera is used to record a video of rock wall conditions (with depth shown on the screen) as the camera is lowered or raised in the wellbore.


WILLIAM L. GOING & ASSOCIATES, INC. uses flow and transport models to simulate and assess surface and subsurface movement of water and contaminants; to design and evaluate remedial action alternatives; and to evaluate the effect of pollutant loads on surface water and groundwater quality. We can also use modeling data to prepare a risk assessment.

Feasibility Studies:

Based on the results of the sampling program, WILLIAM L. GOING & ASSOCIATES, INC. can evaluate cost-effective and practical approaches to cleanups by conducting feasibility studies. Feasibility studies allow our clients to make informed decisions regarding site cleanups.